46 HISTORY OF PKRSIA n,AP. sliVII It remains to add that, in consequence of this doctrine of the Imams, the Shahs of Persia have no religious authority in their kingdom, whereas the Sultan of Turkey is the acknowledged Caliph among Sunnis. Indeed, the position of the Shahs since the downed! of the Safavi dynasty is theoretically that of usurpers, although in prac- tice they were absolute monarchs until the mystic word "constitution " was heard in Persia. It may further be observed that Shias make pilgrimages to Kerhela, the scene of the martyrdom of Husayn, and u Krrhclai " is a title which ranks only second to that of " Haji." They also visit the tomb of AH at Najaf, In Persia the Sacred City and the Glory of the Shia World is Meshed, where, as described in Chapter JL, JRi/a, the Kighth Imam, is buried,., and "Meshedi" is the third and last title of honour affected by Shia pilgrims.